It is battle between land power and sea power which is going to lead the world continents by one. What is Heartland theory? This theory explains,greatest wealth. Mackinder’s Heartland Theory: Mackinder gave this theory in This theory regards political history as a continuous struggle between land and sea powers. The final tradition informing geopolitical thought in Russia today is the celebrated “Heartland” theory of the British geographer and statesman. Halford Mackinder.

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Mackinder predicted that whoever got the balance of power in its favour would rule-the World Island.

For instance, the writer claimed that the existing natural barriers would protect the Heartland from foreign invasion. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.

This article has multiple issues. What is the Heartland Theory? The Heartland Theory is seen by critics as impractical in a modern perspective.

Signs of Mackinder’s Heartland Theory can be found in the works of geopolitician Dimitri Kitsikisparticularly in his ” Intermediate Region ” model. Mackinder believed that countries from other world regions the offshore islands and the outlying islands were hindered from off a successful invasion in the Heartland by the geographical barriers surrounding the Heartland the Carpathian Mountains to the west, the Hindukush Ranges to the South, and the Altai to the east and the Baltic Sea to the north.

Mackinder identified the geopolitical nightmare that was to haunt the world’s two sea powers during the first half of the twentieth century— Great Britain and, later the United States. Mackinder called it the Heartland total area being 11 million square kilometres. Mackinder’s “Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland Its simplicity and boldness have been achieved at the cost of accuracy regarding the historical and the geographical details.

The theory heartlanv formulated at the end of the railway age. The Heartland is inaccessible from sea as all the rivers either drain inland e. This theory regards political history as a continuous struggle between land and sea powers with the ultimate victory going to the continental power. Views Read Edit View history. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. Also, China later went on to join the communist sphere, while the Saudi Arabia-Sahara barrier could not prevent the Cold War from spilling over into Africa.

His map Mercator projection of the world enclosed within an ellipse exaggerated the extent of the Arctic Ocean. Meaning and Its Structure.


Although the age of aeroplanes had begun, the theory failed to take into account its potential. Anyway, the advances in satellite, missile, atomic and space technologies have overshadowed the strategic importance of geographic factors.

The Geographical Pivot of History – Wikipedia

The Heartland or pivot area could have become the focus of power if either Russia had united with Germany or Russia had been overthrown by China and Japan. Mackinder held that effective political domination of the Heartland heaftland a single power had been unattainable in the past because:. During the time of mackinddr writing hdartland the Heartland Theory, most of East Europe and Russia did not have an inch of road or railway network, making the belief of conquering the Heartland logistically impossible.

Obi, Yenisei, Lena which drain into the Arctic Sea. According to this theory, the continental power was represented by the world island which consisted of Eurasia and Africa comprising seven- eighth of total world population and two-third of the total land area of the world.

The other landmasses would follow later. However, the roles of both the Intermediate Region and the Heartland are regarded by their respective authors as being pivotal in the shaping of world history. Halford Mackinder was a 20th-century geopolitical scholar who is attributed for writing the Heartland Theory.

However, the Heartland has been under Russian authority for hundreds of years and so to capture the Heartland, countries needed to prevent the expansion of Russian influence in the Heartland at the very least.

What is the Heartland Theory?

He divided Europe into east and west by a line joining the Adriatic to the Baltic. Halford relied on the interlinking of continents to come up with the dichotomy whereby interlinked continents were classified in a common region. Halford Mackinder was born on February 15th, in Gainsborough, England and received his education at the Epsom College and later at Christ Church in Oxford, where he received his biology degree in According to the theory, the core of global influence lies in what is known as the Heartland, a region of the world situated in Eurasia due to its sheer size, a wealth of resources, and a high population.

Countries of Eastern Europe enjoy proximity to the Heartland and therefore are in literally the best position to take advantage of its resources.

Mackinder’s Heartland Theory – Explained!

By Benjamin Elisha Sawe. This page was last edited on 27 Septemberat Mackinder had a liking for Geography and was a proponent of having physical geography and human geography taught as one subject.


This page was last updated on September 26, Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. The reason for this difference is that Mackinder’s model is primarily geo-strategic, while Kitsikis’ model is geo-civilizational. Eastern Europe is of critical importance in the Heartland Theory.

Volga, Oxus, Jaxartes or into the icy sea e. Mackinder wrote down the theory in the turn of the 20th century, a period when modern technological advancements were still in their infancy. But throughout the nineteenth century:. Mackinder saw it as a high point of communication system capable of uniting the whole Heartland into a cohesive unit.

The Heartland lay at the centre of the world island, stretching from the Volga to the Yangtze and from the Himalayas to the Arctic. The Heartland concept inspired Kjellen and Haushofer in their study of geopolitics.

It had rugged mountains of Lena Land in the north-east; in the east it had the Altai, Tienshan mountains across which lie the wastelands of Mongolia and Sinkiang; in the south it had Hindukush ranges and the plateau of Afghanistan and Iran; in the south-west, between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea lie the Caucasus and the plateau of Armenia; in the west, the Heartland was surrounded by the Carpathian mountains; in the north-west were the Baltic Sea and the wastes of Lappland; in the north lies the Arctic Ocean.

Some see China’s prominence in international affairs as culminating with the country being the global power. Mackinder’s Heartland was the area then ruled by the Russian Empire and after that by the Soviet Unionminus the Kamchatka Peninsula region, which is located in the easternmost part of Russia, near the Aleutian Islands and Kurile islands.

This question may seem pointless, since in the Russian Empire had ruled most of the area from the Volga to Eastern Siberia for centuries. Mackinder gave this theory in Only countries in Eastern Europe were seen as potential candidates of launching a successful invasion in the Heartland.